Monday, March 16, 2020

Biography of Rita Levi-Montalcini, Nobel Prize Winner

Biography of Rita Levi-Montalcini, Nobel Prize Winner Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909–2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning neurologist who discovered and studied the Nerve Growth Factor, a critical chemical tool the human body uses to direct cell growth and build nerve networks. Born into a Jewish family in Italy, she survived the horrors of Hitlers Europe to make major contributions to research on cancer and Alzheimers disease. Fast Facts: Rita Levi-Montalcini Occupation: Nobel Prize winning neuroscientistKnown For: Discovering the first nerve growth factor (NGF)Born: April 22, 1909 in Turin, Italy  Parents Names: Adamo Levi and Adele MontalciniDied: December 30, 2012 in Rome, ItalyEducation: University of TurinKey Accomplishments: Nobel Prize in Medicine, U.S. National Medal of ScienceFamous Quote:  If I had not been discriminated against or had not suffered persecution, I would never have received the Nobel Prize. Early Years Rita Levi-Montalcini was born in Turin, Italy, on April 22, 1909. She was the youngest of four children from a well-to-do Italian Jewish family led by Adamo Levi, an electrical engineer, and Adele Montalcini, a painter. As was the custom in the early 20th century, Adamo discouraged Rita and her sisters Paola and Anna from entering college. Adamo felt that the womans role of raising a family was incompatible with creative expression and professional endeavors. Rita had other plans. At first, she wanted to be a philosopher, then decided she wasnt logically minded enough. Then, inspired by Swedish writer Selma Lagerlof, she considered a career in writing. After her governess died of cancer, however, Rita decided she would become a doctor, and in 1930, she entered the University of Turin at the age of 22. Ritas twin sister Paola went on to great success as an artist. Neither of the sisters married, a fact about which neither expressed any regret. Education Levi-Montalcinis first mentor at the University of Turin was Giuseppe Levi (no relation). Levi was a prominent neurohistologist who introduced Levi-Montalcini to the scientific study of the developing nervous system. She became an intern at the Institute of Anatomy at Turin, where she grew adept at histology, including techniques like staining nerve cells. Giuseppe Levi was known for being something of a tyrant, and he gave his mentee an impossible task: figure out how the convolutions of the human brain are formed. However, Levi-Montalcini was unable to obtain human fetal tissue in a country where abortion was illegal, so she dropped the research in favor of studying nervous system development in chick embryos. In 1936, Levi-Montalcini graduated from the University of Turin summa cum laude with a degree in Medicine and Surgery. She then enrolled in a three-year specialization in neurology and psychiatry. In 1938, Benito Mussolini banned  non-Aryans from academic and professional careers. Levi-Montalcini was working at a scientific institute in Belgium when Germany invaded that country in 1940, and she returned to Turin, where her family was considering emigrating to the United States. However, the Levi-Montalcinis ultimately decided to remain in Italy. In order to continue her research on chick embryos, Levi-Montalcini installed a small research unit at home in her bedroom.   World War II In 1941, heavy Allied bombing forced the family to abandon Turin and move to the countryside. Levi-Montalcini was able to continue her research until 1943, when the Germans invaded Italy. The family fled to Florence, where they lived in hiding until the end of World War II.   While in Florence, Levi-Montalcini worked as a medical doctor for a refugee camp and fought epidemics of infectious diseases and typhus. In May 1945, the war ended in Italy, and Levi-Montalcini and her family returned to Turin, where she resumed her academic positions and worked again with Giuseppe Levi. In the fall of 1947, she received an invitation from Professor Viktor Hamburger at the Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) to work with him conducting research on chick embryo development. Levi-Montalcini accepted; she would remain at WUSTL until 1977.   Professional Career At WUSTL, Levi-Montalcini and Hamburger discovered a protein that, when released by cells, attracts nerve growth from nearby developing cells. In the early 1950s, she and biochemist Stanley Cohen isolated and described the chemical which became known as the Nerve Growth Factor.  Ã‚   Levi-Montalcini became an associate professor at WUSTL in 1956 and a full professor in 1961. In 1962, she helped establish the Institute of Cell Biology in Rome and became its first director. She retired from WUSTL in 1977, remaining as emerita there but splitting her time between Rome and St. Louis.   Nobel Prize and Politics In 1986, Levi-Montalcini and Cohen were together awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine. She was only the fourth woman to win a Nobel Prize. In 2002, she established the European Brain Research Institute (EBRI) in Rome, a non-profit center to foster and promote brain research.   In 2001, Italy made her a senator for life, a role which she did not take lightly. In 2006, at the age of 97, she held the deciding vote in the Italian parliament on a budget that was backed by the government of Roman Prodi. She threatened to withdraw her support unless the government reversed a last-minute decision to cut science funding. The funding was put back in, and the budget passed, despite attempts by the opposition leader Francesco Storace to silence her. Storace mockingly sent her crutches, stating that she was too old to vote and a crutch to an ailing government. At the age of 100, Levi-Montalcini was still going to work at the EBRI, now named after her.   Personal Life Levi-Montalcini never married and had no children. She was briefly engaged in medical school, but had no long-term romances. In a 1988 interview with Omni magazine, she commented that even marriages between two brilliant people might suffer because of resentment over unequal success.   She was, however, the author or co-author of over 20 popular books, including her own autobiography, and dozens of research studies. She received numerous scientific medals, including the United States National Medal of Science, presented to her at the White House by President Ronald Reagan in 1987. Famous Quotes In 1988, Scientific American asked 75 researchers their reasons for becoming a scientist. Levi-Montalcini gave the following reason:   The love for nerve cells, a thirst for unveiling the rules which control their growth and differentiation, and the pleasure of performing this task in defiance of the racial laws issued in 1939 by the Fascist regime were the driving forces which opened the doors for me of the Forbidden City. During a 1993 interview with Margaret Holloway for Scientific American, Levi-Montalcini mused:   If I had not been discriminated against or had not suffered persecution, I would never have received the Nobel Prize.   Levi-Montalcinis 2012 obituary in the New York Times included the following quote, from her autobiography: It is imperfection- not perfection- that is the end result of the program written into that formidably complex engine that is the human brain, and of the influences exerted upon us by the environment and whoever takes care of us during the long years of our physical, psychological and intellectual development. Legacy and Death Rita Levi-Montalcini died on December 30, 2012, at age 103, at her home in Rome. Her discovery of the Nerve Growth Factor, and the research that led to it, gave other researchers a new way to study and understand cancers (disorders of neural growth) and Alzheimers disease (degeneration of neurons). Her research created fresh pathways for developing groundbreaking therapies.   Levi-Montalcinis influence in nonprofit science efforts, refugee work, and mentoring students was considerable. Her 1988 autobiography is eminently readable and often assigned to beginning STEM students. Sources Abbott, Alison. Neuroscience: One Hundred Years of Rita. Nature 458 (1909): 564–67. Print.Aloe, L. Rita Levi-Montalcini and the Discovery of NGF, the First Nerve Cell Growth Factor. Archives Italiennes de Biologie 149.2 (2011): 175–81. Print.Arnheim, Rudolf, et al. Seventy-Five Reasons to Become a Scientist: American Scientist Celebrates Its Seventy-Fifth Anniversary. American Scientist 76.5 (1988): 450–63. Print.Carey, Benedict. Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini, Nobel Winner, Dies at 103. The New York Times December 30, 2012, New York ed.: A17. Print.Holloway, Marguerite. Finding the Good in the Bad: A Profile of Rita Levi-Montalcini. Scientific American  (2012, originally published 1993). Print.Levi-Montalcini, Rita. In Praise of Imperfection: My Life and Work. Trans. Attardi, Luigi. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 220: Basic Books, 1988. Print.Levi-Montalcini, Rita, and Stanley Cohen. Rita Levi-Montalcini- Facts. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986.  Web.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Project management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 2

Project management - Essay Example The respondents comprise the management, middle- and low-level management staff of a global organization. Confidentiality is afforded the respondents. The values of the particular group of people are one form of influence on the organizational culture. There are two cultural systems present in a global organization, but are essentially separate: the national culture and the corporate or organizational culture. Cultural differences are present in global organizations. Most low-rank employees can be recruited in the country where business is built. These people have their culture apart from the culture in the organization which in turn forms another culture. Managers and employees working in an international environment are obviously subject to the impact of multi-country, regional and global change and dynamism than managers in a single-country operation. Managers should be fully aware of the culture’s values and what behaviors or actions those values support in order to take advantage of an existing cultural system. Employees and managers should develop a deep understanding of how organizational values operate in the firm. The study of multi-cultural influences in an organization is a concern of International HRM. Multiculturalism is an outcome of globalization. These organizations are global in context; meaning their operation, corporate set-up, orientation, are internationalized. The process of decision-making, including strategic decision-making, is clearly influenced by cultural factors. The collection of information, its interpretation, the dynamics of the group making the decision and the contextual constraints under which decision-makers work are all influenced to a greater or lesser degree by the culture of those involved. (Cray & Mallory, 1998, p 71) Communication failure between expatriates and local employees may arise from a number of factors, such as differences with regards to cultural adjustment

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Compare and contrast the relationships which evolved between Essay

Compare and contrast the relationships which evolved between technology subjectivity and space of concentration camsp factory Manhatten project cinema and the - Essay Example e to this led to one of the most violent expressions of individuality recorded in human history as Nazi Germany exalted the Aryan and vilified the Jew. The response to this violence, assisted through the use of yet further technology such as cinema and the exhibition to educate and influence the cultural mind, led the way to the current trend of increasing subjectivity within the Metropolis. Thus, there are numerous complex relationships apparent between the advances in technology to the degree of subjectivity inherent in a particular society as shown through the space of the factory, the concentration camps, the Manhattan Project, the exhibition and the cinema. One of the most important features of capitalism in industries was the capacity to impose a work discipline with uniform and regular patterns while eliminating the possibility of self-organizing (Thompson, 1967). Within the factories, many artisans were brought under the same roof and, more importantly, expected to work within the mills, a radically different production technique from that used previously within the cottage industries. â€Å"The nineteenth century demanded the functional specialization of man and his work; this specialization makes one individual incomparable to another †¦, this specialization makes each man the more directly dependent upon the supplementary activities of all others† (Simmel, 1903). The factory eliminates the need for the individual even while it works to separate the individual into appropriate work classifications for greatest effect, making each worker depend upon the work of another to function. Yet, this â€Å"colossal centralizati on, this agglomeration of three and a half million people on a single spot has multiplied the strength of these three and a half million inhabitants a hundredfold† (Engels, 1987) creating a need to institute some sort of control. Therefore, bringing all these people together also made surveillance possible at the least as a means of

Friday, January 31, 2020

Domestic Violence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Domestic Violence - Essay Example Several factors do involve why family violence is kept secret by the family members. It is in this way he/she can tolerate his/her acts of family abuse. Domestic violence is also termed as intimate violence. To consider a misdemeanor as domestic violence, there is the requisite of intimacy between the offender and the aggrieved party. Hence, domestic violence is not only true at the doorstep of the family, but to any relationships or affairs as well. There has been a vast campaign against domestic violence since then, most especially to women and children. Women and children are considered as the weakest human being and often entrenched to physical abuse. The prevailing condition of the society imbibed the legitimacy of man’s figure as the superior form of human being which shall maneuver the society. Women’s activist pushed through in establishing the woman’s figure and worth in the society. Furthermore, since there is an implied paternalism, the criminal justic e has lesser focused on domestic violence. This transfiguration has been contested by many individuals to honor and legislate laws and statutes that shall protect and safeguard women and children’s right. Domestic violence has different variations, the most common type is the physical abuse, and the other form is through emotional abuse. Physical abuse entails the use of force or objects in perpetrating the acts. The physical agility of men display their dominance over their partner, thus it is easy for them to inflict harm to their partners. There has been no postulated reason why men usually beat their wives or partners, but some probable cause or motives is due to financial matters. Grassroots families are more likely to be exposed in domestic violence mainly due to financial constraints. Instead of procuring a job, they turn their anger to their

Thursday, January 23, 2020

The Beast Fable and Romance in the Nuns Priests Tale Essay -- Nuns Pri

The Beast Fable and Romance in the Nun's Priest Tale Chaucer utilized many literary forms when composing his Canterbury Tales. Among these forms he utilized were the beast fable and romance. We find elements of both of these forms in the Nun's Priest's Tale. Yet Chaucer was a decidingly original poet. When he took these forms he made them his. He often diverged from the accepted norms to come up with stories that were familiar to the fourteenth century reader yet also original. First let us look at the use of beast fable and how Chaucer diverged from tradition. One significant difference is that there is almost no human interaction with the animals. We have a brief description of the human inhabitants of the farm and then they disappear until the end. The true "humans" are the animals themselves as they possess almost total human qualities. For example, Chauntecleer and Pertelote are a "married" couple and bicker as humans. They also "love" each other. "He loved hir so that wel was him terwith" (VII. 2876). Most striking is the logical analysis both chickens are capable...

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Piaget vs. Jung

Piaget *Missing Works Cited* Piaget work has received world wide acclaim and recognition , as well as having a positive impact in areas such as education and social curricula. Though he had made an impact on understanding of the child cognitive development , his theory of cognitive development has suffered a great deal of critics that it neglects the social nature of human development. (Hook, Watts and Cockroft ,2002). So the following essay will discuss on whether this critic is valid or not based on detail discussion of Piaget theory. The theory of Vygotsky shall also be discussed to prove that indeed social factors play a role . Piaget theory of cognitive development neglects the influence of social factors on child cognitive development. (Hook et al ,2002)As stated by Hook et al (2002,p. 190)in agreement with critics like Piaget theory gave insufficient attention to the ways in which children social interaction with their sibling or parents may influence their cognitive development† . Justification of this critic is provided by the fact that Piaget (1952)saw children as lone scientist who sought to understand and build knowledge of their external world through interaction with the world . According to Piaget as stated in Siegel &Brainerd(1978)cognitive development depend on two factors , internal maturation and external maturation . That is children are incapable of learning some tasks until they reached a certain age When considering cognitive development , Piaget focuses on the mental processes that occur, rather than on the actual measure of the cognitive development. Clearly justification to this critic of insufficient has been provided by the fact that Piaget sees children as the lone scientists who sought to understand and build knowledge of their external world their interaction with it (Hooketal ,2002). According to Piaget (1960)children actively construct their own cognitive world , he also stated that information is not just poured into children minds from the environment . Clearly this critic of insufficient attention to social factors was justified . According to Piaget (1952)as stated in Hook et al (2002p180)†much of what child learns begin by accident –The child accidentally performs some action , perceives it , like it and then repeats the action assimilating it into her or his existing schemes . The above quotation provides evidence that Piaget theory neglected social factors that plays a role on cognitive development of the child. Piaget devised four stages of development spanning from birth to adolescence. The stages progress in an invariant sequence, a child moves systematically through stages and advancement into the next stage depends on the mastery of the proceeding one (1952) The succession of stages involves the movement through that four stages. According to Piaget (1952) Children must move through these stages during their childhood. These include Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concreteoperational, and Formal operational. Stage movement is an important factor of Piaget's definition of cognitive development, because Piaget (1960) states that there are a specific set of criteria that must be met and mastered at each stage. In order to move from the first stage to the next, the child must master that specific set of criteria. (Siegel & Brainerd,1978) One may argue that Piaget uses biological approach, or biological adaption to discuss the cognitive development of the child. This includes our reflexes which occur when certain stimuli trigger an instinctive response. Piaget theory explains how child cognitive develops through an intellectual regulatory process geared by adaption to the environment. (Siegel & Brainerd,1978). During this on going relationship with the environment the child exhibits certain organisations based upon assimilation, the taking in process of experience, accepting new encounters and fitting them into existing schemes, and accommodation , the reaction of the individual who encounters new experiences that are not consistent with existingschemes and so the person must change their scheme to accept or accommodate the new information(Hook et al, 2002,Siegel& brainerd, Piaget ,1960,Tryphon & voneche,1996 ,1978) . Piaget felt that a baby is an active and curious organism, that reaches out and seeks to regulate a balance between assimilation and accommodation. This balance is what Piaget describes as equilibrium. Piaget considered the process of equilibrium an important factor in the cognitive growth and development of a child. (Piaget , 1952) This was the ground were he was criticize because he said that children must be allowed to do their own learning(Piaget,1952). Lourenco & Machado (1996)in defense of Piaget theory realized that Piaget has took into consideration the fact that humans progressively develop or mature to higher states of cognitive development and realized that children acquire knowledge transmitted by parents, teachers ,and books, Piaget called this â€Å"social transmission. † Piaget believed that when a child hears contradictory statements that challenge established schemes, equilibrium is disturbed. Piaget called such a disruption in equilibrium cognitive conflict or disequilibrium. When children experience cognitive conflict they set out in search of an answer that will enable them to achieve states of equilibrium. (Lourenco & Machado,1996) Justification of this critique was also provided by Vygotsky theory of development . Vygotsky (1929) believes that adults and child’s peers are involved in shaping cognitive development of the child. As stated by Vygotsky (1929) through social activities a child learns cultural tools and social inventions . These according to Vygotsky (1929) includes language, rules and counting. Vygotsky theory is one theory that has provided justification to the critics that Piaget gave insufficient attention to social factors. Mentioned on the second page Piaget (1952) contended that cognitive development is constructed into four stages . The following paragraph will examine each stage individually focusing on social factors that he ignore on each and every stage. The sensorimotor stage is the first of the four stages Piaget uses to define cognitive development. Piaget designated the first two years of an infants life as the sensorimotor stage. During this period, infants are busy discovering relationships between their bodies and the environment. Researchers have discovered that infants have relatively well developed sensory abilities. The child relies on seeing, touching, sucking, feeling, and using their senses to learn things about themselves and the environment. Piaget calls this the sensorimotor stage because the early manifestations of intelligence appear from sensory perceptions and motor activities. Through countless informal experiments, infants develop the concept of separate selves, that is, the infant realizes that the external world is not an extension of themselves. According to Piaget(1952)Infants at this stage realize that an object can be moved by a hand and develop notions of displacement and events. An important discovery during the latter part of the sensorimotor stage is the concept of object permanence. Object permananceis the awareness that an object continues to exist even when it is not in view. In young infants, when a toy is covered by a piece of paper, the infant immediately stops and appears to lose interest in the toy. After a child has mastered the concept of object permanence, the emergence of directed groping begins to take place. With directed groping, the child egins to perform motor experiments in order to see what will happen. (Hook et al, 2002) During directed groping, a child will vary his movements to observe how the results will differ. The child learns to use new means to achieve an end. The child discovers he can pull objects toward himself with the aid of a stick or string, or tilt objects to get them through the ba rs of his playpen(Hook et al,2002). The concrete operational stage is the third stage in Piaget's theory. This stage typically occurs between the ages of 7 and 12(Hook et al , 2002) During this stage, the child begins to reason logically, and organise thoughts coherently. However, they can only think about actual physical objects, they cannot handle abstract reasoning. This stage is also characterized by a loss of egocentric thinking. During this stage, the child has the ability to master most types of conservation experiments, and begins to understand reversibility. (Piaget 1952,Maier,1978 and Hook et al , 2002). The concrete operational stage is also characterized by the child's ability to coordinate two dimensions of an object simultaneously, arrange structures in sequence, and transpose differences between items in a series. The formal operational stage is the fourth and final stage in Piaget's theory. It begins at approximately 11 to 12 years of age, and continues throughout adulthood, although Piaget does point out that some people may never reach this stage of cognitive development. The formal operational stage is characterized by the ability to formulate hypotheses and systematically test them to arrive at an answer to a problem. The individual in the formal stage is also able to think abstractly and to understand the form or structure of a mathematical problem. Another characteristic of the individual is their ability to reason contrary to fact. That is, if they are given a statement and asked to use it as the basis of an argument they are capable of accomplishing the task. For example, they can deal with the statement â€Å"what would happen if snow were black†. Mental hospital in Zurich, a famous medical hospital. He studied under Eugen Bleuler, who was a famous psychiatrist who defined schizophrenia. Jung was also influenced by Freud with whom he later became good friends. Freud called him his crown-prince. Their relationship ended when Jung wrote a book called â€Å"Symbols of Transformation. † Jung disagreed with Freud's undamental idea that a symbol is a disguised representation of a repressed wish. I will go into that later. After splitting up with Freud, Jung had a 2 year period of non- productivity, but then he came out with his â€Å"Psychological Types,† a famous work. He went on several trips to learn about primitive societies and archetypes to Africa, New Mexico to study Pueblo Indians, and to India and Ceylon to study eastern philosophy. He studied religious and occult beliefs like I Ching, a Chinese method of fortune telling. Alchemy was also one of his interests. His book, â€Å"Psychology and Alchemy,† published in 1944 is among his most important writings. He studied what all this told about the human mind. One of his methods was word association, which is when a person is given a series of words and asked to respond to them. Abnormal response or hesitation can mean that the person has a complex about that word. His basic belief was in complex or analytical psychology. The goal is psychosynthesis, or the unification and differentiation of the psyche (mind). He believed that the mind started out as a whole and should stay that way. That answered structural, dynamic, developmental questions. I will attempt to restate the major ideas and terms in this book in a pseudo- outline. It will make the understanding a bit more clear. STRUCTURE ——— DYNAMICS ——– The psyche . There are some channels into the psyche through which ene rgy can enter in form of experiences. If the psyche were a totally closed systems, it could reach a state of perfect balance, for it would not be subjected to interference from the outside. The slightest stimulus may have far-reaching consequences on one's mental stability. This shows that it is not the amount of energy that is added, but the disruptive effects that the added energy produces within the psyche. These disruptive effects are caused by massive redistributions of energy within the system. It takes only the slightest pressure on the trigger of a loaded gun to cause a great disaster. Similarly, it may take only the slightest addition of energy to an unstable psyche to produce large effects in a person's behavior. Psychic energy is also called Libido. It is not to be confused with Freud's definition of libido. Jung did not restrict libido to sexual energy as Freud did. In fact, this is one of the essential differences in the theories of the two men. It can be classified as actual or potential forces that perform psychological work. It is often expressed in desires and wants for objects. The values for things are hidden in complexes. The psyche is always active, yet it is still very difficult for people to accept this view of a continuously active psyche, because there is a strong tendency to equate psychic activity with conscious activity. Jung, as well as Freud, hammered away at this misconception, but it persists even today. The source of psychic energy is derived from one's instincts and diverted into other uses. Like a waterfall is used to create energy, you have to use your instincts to turn into energy as well. Otherwise, just like the waterfall, your instincts are completely fruitless. For example, if you think that to get a beautiful wife, you have to be rich, so you direct your sexual drive into a business persona, which will bring you money. There are two principles of psychic dynamics. What happens to all that energy? 1. Principle of Equivalence. Energy is not created nor destroyed. If it leaves something, it has to surface. For example, if a child devoted a lot of energy to reading comics, it might be redirected into a different persona, som ething like being Mr. Cool Dude! He then will loose interest in reading comics. Energy also has an inclination to carry tendencies of its source to its destination. 2. Principle of Entropy. Energy usually flows from high to low. If you have a highly developed structure (persona, for example), instead of equalizing, it may start drawing values from other systems to boost itself even higher. Such highly energized systems have a tendency to go BOOOOM! So, entropy can destroy those high energy systems if they get too big. The operation of the entropy principle results in an equilibrium of forces. Just like two bodies of different temperatures touching each other would soon equalize temperatures. The hotter one will transfer heat to the cooler one. Once a balance is reached in your psyche, according to Jung, it will be then difficult to disturb. Tho se two principles influence the following: Progression and Regression. Progression is the advance of psychological adaptation. For example, if you need a shadow (creativity, perhaps), you will try to develop one. When conflicting traits loose power, your psyche enters regression. Say, your persona and shadow are in opposition and because they are in opposition, they both would be suppressed, because neither would get enough libido, or energy. DEVELOPMENT ———– During this stage, an individual establishes his/her position in life. His vocation and marriage partner are determined. A person usually uses his Anima and Shadow to decide those things. Values are channeled into his establishment in the outside world. Once one is independent, even a small experience can influence him greatly. The Middle Age is the one often neglected by psychiatrists. Lots of people have problems in this stage. They usually don't know what to do with the energy left over that was devoted to establishing positions in society as youth. As the principle of entropy suggests, the energy is conserved, so once an adult put it to use, he must redirect it elsewhere. Jung stated that those left-over energies can be usefully diverted into spiritual contemplation and expansion. Nothing much happens in old age. People have so much energy of experiences in their psyche that even a major experience won't upset their psychological balance. Often, society will force people to assume prefered types. Types are categories of classifications of psyches which are non-absolute and have no definite boundaries. There are eight â€Å"types. † Types are combinations of functions and attitudes (page 3). The following are the eight main types: 1. Extraverted Thinking Type. This type of man elevates objective thinking into the ruling passion of his life. He is typified by the scientist who devotes his energy to learning as much as he can about the objective world. The most developed extraverted thinker is an Einstein. 2. Introverted Thinking Type. This type is inward-directed in his thinking. He is exemplified by the philosopher or existential psychologist who seeks to understand the reality of his own being. He may eventually break his ties with reality and become schizophrenic. 3. Extraverted Feeling Type. This type, which Jung observes is more frequently found in women, subordinates thinking to feeling. 4. Introverted Feeling Type. This type is also more commonly found among women. Unlike their extraverted sisters, introverted feeling persons keep their feelings hidden from the world. 5. Extraverted Sensation Type. People of this type, mainly men, take an interest in accumulating facts about the external world. They are realistic, practical, and hardheaded, but they are not particularly concerned about what things mean. 6. Introverted Sensation Type. Like all introverts, the introverted ensation type stands aloof from external objects, immersing himself in his own psychic sensations. He considers the world to be banal and uninteresting. 7. Extraverted Intuitive Type. People of this type, commonly women, are characterized by flightiness and instability. They jump from situation to situation to discover new possibilities in the external world. They are always looking for new worlds to c onquer before they have conquered old ones. 8. Introverted Intuitive Type. The artist is a representative of this type, but it also contains dreamers, prophets, visionaries, and cranks. He usually thinks of himself as a misunderstood genius. Variations in the degree to which each of the attitudes and functions are consciously developed or remain unconscious and undeveloped can produce a wide range of differences among individuals. This book is an extremely valuable source of thought provoking logic. Jung wrote with common sense, passion, and compassion, and the reader experiences a â€Å"shock of recognition†; he will recognize truths he has known, but which he has not been able to express in words. This book made me think about myself, and people in general. How people's minds work, including my own. I found a lot of â€Å"truth† or at least I though I did in Jung's teachings. I could relate some of the reading material to elements studied in class. One will be astounded by the number of Jung's ideas that anticipated those of later writers. Many of the new trends in psychology and related fields are indebted to Jung, who first gave them their direction. The book is also interesting, because of its challenging nature. I suppose that not all people would enjoy reading such type of literature, since many people in this world are sensational types. I certainly did enjoy it, and have found out some things about myself in the process. The book is very well written. It has many good analogies and explanations which even the most sensational type would understand. The collection of information is tremendous. There is so much information bundled in 130 pages, that it makes you think that 500 pages would not be enough to really explain deeply the subject matter. This book can be faultlessly us ed as a textbook, which could prove to be salutary in psychology classes. I strongly recommend reading this book to all audiences that want to. A person, content with the world around him, not wishing to challenge the puzzles of nature, should not. This book is a treasure for all who seek to explore the human mind. Our personality traits come in opposites. We think of ourselves as optimistic or pessimistic, independent or dependent, emotional or unemotional, adventurous or cautious, leader or follower, aggressive or passive. Many of these are inborn temperament traits, but other characteristics, such as feeling either competent or inferior, appear to be learned, based on the challenges and support we receive in growing up. The man who did a great deal to explore this concept is Erik Erikson. Although he was influenced by Freud, he believed that the ego exists from birth and that behavior is not totally defensive. Based in part on his study of Sioux Indians on a reservation, Erikson became aware of the massive influence of culture on behavior and placed more emphasis on the external world, such as depression and wars. He felt the course of development is determined by the interaction of the body (genetic biological programming), mind (psychological), and cultural (ethos) influences. He organized life into eight stages that extend from birth to death (many developmental theories only cover childhood). Since adulthood covers a span of many years, Erikson divided the stages of adulthood into the experiences of young adults, middle aged adults and older adults. While the actual ages may vary considerably from one stage to another, the ages seem to be appropriate for the majority of people. Erikson's basic philosophy might be said to rest on two major themes: (1) the world gets bigger as we go along and (2) failure is cumulative. While the first point is fairly obvious, we might take exception to the last. True, in many cases an individual who has to deal with horrendous circumstances as a child may be unable to negotiate later stages as easily as someone who didn't have as many challenges early on. For example, we know that orphans who weren't held or stroked as infants have an extremely hard time connecting with others when they become adults and have even died from lack of human contact. However, there's always the chance that somewhere along the way the strength of the human spirit can be ignited and deficits overcome. Therefore, to give you an idea of another developmental concept, be sure to see Stages of Growth for Children and Adults, based on Pamela Levine's work. She saw development as a spiraling cycle rather than as stages through which we pass, never to visit again. As you read through the following eight stages with their sets of opposites, notice which strengths you identify with most and those you need to work on some more. . Infancy: Birth to 18 Months Ego Development Outcome: Trust vs. Mistrust Basic strength: Drive and Hope Erikson also referred to infancy as the Oral Sensory Stage (as anyone might who watches a baby put everything in her mouth) where the major emphasis is on the mother's positive and loving care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact and touch. If we pass successfully through this period of life, we will learn to trust that life is basically okay and have basic confidence in the future. If we fail to experience trust and are constantly frustrated because our needs are not met, we may end up with a deep-seated feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust of the world in general. Incidentally, many studies of suicides and suicide attempts point to the importance of the early years in developing the basic belief that the world is trustworthy and that every individual has a right to be here. Not surprisingly, the most significant relationship is with the maternal parent, or whoever is our most significant and constant caregiver. . Early Childhood: 18 Months to 3 Years Ego Development Outcome: Autonomy vs. Shame Basic Strengths: Self-control, Courage, and Will During this stage we learn to master skills for ourselves. Not only do we learn to walk, talk and feed ourselves, we are learning finer motor development as well as the much appreciated toilet training. Here we have the opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as we gain more control over our bodies and acquire new skills, learning right from wrong. And one of our skills during the â€Å"Terrible Two's† is our ability to use the powerful word â€Å"NO! † It may be pain for parents, but it develops important skills of the will. It is also during this stage, however, that we can be very vulnerable. If we're shamed in the process of toilet training or in learning other important skills, we may feel great shame and doubt of our capabilities and suffer low self-esteem as a result. The most significant relationships are with parents. 3. Play Age: 3 to 5 Years Ego Development Outcome: Initiative vs. Guilt Basic Strength: Purpose During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations. We make up stories with Barbie's and Ken's, toy phones and miniature cars, playing out roles in a trial universe, experimenting with the blueprint for what we believe it means to be an adult. We also begin to use that wonderful word for exploring the world—†WHY? † While Erikson was influenced by Freud, he downplays biological sexuality in favor of the psychosocial features of conflict between child and parents. Nevertheless, he said that at this stage we usually become involved in the classic â€Å"Oedipal struggle† and resolve this struggle through â€Å"social role identification. † If we're frustrated over natural desires and goals, we may easily experience guilt. The most significant relationship is with the basic family. 4. School Age: 6 to 12 Years Ego Development Outcome: Industry vs. Inferiority Basic Strengths: Method and Competence During this stage, often called the Latency, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry. This is also a very social stage of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, we can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem. As the world expands a bit, our most significant relationship is with the school and neighborhood. Parents are no longer the complete authorities they once were, although they are still important. 5. Adolescence: 12 to 18 Years Ego Development Outcome: Identity vs. Role Confusion Basic Strengths: Devotion and Fidelity Up to this stage, according to Erikson, development mostly depends upon what is done to us. From here on out, development depends primarily upon what we do. And while adolescence is a stage at which we are neither a child nor an adult, life is definitely getting more complex as we attempt to find our own identity, struggle with social interactions, and grapple with moral issues. Our task is to discover who we are as individuals separate from our family of origin and as members of a wider society. Unfortunately for those around us, in this process many of us go into a period of withdrawing from responsibilities, which Erikson called a â€Å"moratorium. And if we are unsuccessful in navigating this stage, we will experience role confusion and upheaval. A significant task for us is to establish a philosophy of life and in this process we tend to think in terms of ideals, which are conflict free, rather than reality, which is not. The problem is that we don't have much experience and find it easy to substitute ideals for experience. However, we can also develop strong devotion to friends and causes. It is no surprise that our most significant relationships are with peer groups. 6. Young adulthood: 18 to 35 Ego Development Outcome: Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation Basic Strengths: Affiliation and Love In the initial stage of being an adult we seek one or more companions and love. As we try to find mutually satisfying relationships, primarily through marriage and friends, we generally also begin to start a family, though this age has been pushed back for many couples who today don't start their families until their late thirties. If negotiating this stage is successful, we can experience intimacy on a deep level. If we're not successful, isolation and distance from others may occur. And when we don't find it easy to create satisfying relationships, our world can begin to shrink as, in defense, we can feel superior to others. Our significant relationships are with marital partners and friends. 7. Middle Adulthood: 35 to 55 or 65 Ego Development Outcome: Generativity vs. Self absorption or Stagnation Basic Strengths: Production and Care Now work is most crucial. Erikson observed that middle-age is when we tend to be occupied with creative and meaningful work and with issues surrounding our family. Also, middle adulthood is when we can expect to â€Å"be in charge,† the role we've longer envied. The significant task is to perpetuate culture and transmit values of the culture through the family (taming the kids) and working to establish a stable environment. Strength comes through care of others and production of something that contributes to the betterment of society, which Erikson calls generativity, so when we're in this stage we often fear inactivity and meaninglessness. As our children leave home, or our relationships or goals change, we may be faced with major life changes—the mid-life crisis—and struggle with finding new meanings and purposes. If we don't get through this stage successfully, we can become self-absorbed and stagnate. Significant relationships are within the workplace, the community and the family. 8. Late Adulthood: 55 or 65 to Death Ego Development Outcome: Integrity vs. Despair Basic Strengths: Wisdom Erikson felt that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage is recovering from it. Perhaps that is because as older adults we can often look back on our lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and we've made a contribution to life, a feeling Erikson calls integrity. Our strengt h comes from a wisdom that the world is very large and we now have a detached concern for the whole of life, accepting death as the completion of life. On the other hand, some adults may reach this stage and despair at their experiences and perceived failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering â€Å"Was the trip worth it? † Alternatively, they may feel they have all the answers (not unlike going back to adolescence) and end with a strong dogmatism that only their view has been correct.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Biography of Edward VII, Successor to Queen Victoria

Edward VII, born Prince Albert Edward (November 9, 1841–May 6, 1910), ruled as king of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India as the successor to his mother, Queen Victoria. Because of his mother’s long reign, he spent most of his life performing only ceremonial duties and living a life of leisure. As king, Edward presided over an era of great change and progress while attempting to balance tradition and modernity. His knack for diplomacy and quasi-progressive views allowed his era to be one of international calm and some domestic reforms. Did You Know? In reference to the famously long reign of his mother, Queen Victoria, Edward joked, â€Å"I dont mind praying to the Eternal Father, but I must be the only man in the country afflicted with an eternal mother.† Early Life: A Royal Childhood Edward’s parents were Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was the second child and first son of the royal couple (preceded by his sister Victoria, born almost a year to the day earlier). Named for his father, Albert, and his mother’s father, Prince Edward, he was known informally as â€Å"Bertie† throughout his life. As the eldest son of the sovereign, Edward was automatically Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, as well as receiving the royal titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony from his father. He was created Prince of Wales, the title traditionally bestowed on the eldest son of the monarch, a month after his birth. Edward was raised from birth to be a monarch. Prince Albert devised his course of study, implemented by a team of tutors. Despite rigorous attention, Edward was a mediocre student at best. He did, however, attain better academic results while in college. Playboy Prince From an early age, observers noted Edward’s gift for charming people. As he grew into adulthood, that talent manifested in several ways, most notably in his reputation as quite a playboy. Much to the dismay of his parents, he openly had an affair with an actress during his time in the military – and this was just the first of many. It wasn’t for lack of legitimate romantic prospects. In 1861, Victoria and Albert sent Edward abroad in order to set up a meeting between him and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, with whom they wanted to arrange a marriage. Edward and Alexandra got along fairly well, and they married in March 1863. Their first child, Albert Victor, was born ten months later, followed by five more siblings, including the future George V. Edward and Alexandra established themselves as socialites, and Edward openly carried on affairs throughout his life. His mistresses included actresses, singers, and aristocrats – famously including the mother of Winston Churchill. For the most part, Alexandra knew and looked the other way, and Edward tried to be relatively discreet and private. In 1869, however, a member of Parliament threatened to name him as a co-respondent in a divorce. The Active Heir Apparent Because of his mother’s famously long reign, Edward spent most of his life as an heir, not a monarch (modern commentators often compare him to Prince Charles in this regard). He was, however, very active nonetheless. Although his mother kept him from having an active role until the late 1890s, he was the first heir to perform the public functions of a modern royal: ceremonies, openings, and other formal public appearances. In a less formal capacity, he was the style icon for men’s fashion at the time. His trips abroad were often ceremonial, but occasionally had significant results. In 1875 and 1876, he toured India, and his success there was so great that Parliament decided to add the title Empress of India to Victoria’s titles. His role as a public face of the monarchy did make him an occasional target: in 1900, while in Belgium, he was the target of a failed assassination attempt, apparently in anger over the Second Boer War. After nearly 64 years on the throne, Queen Victoria died in 1901, and Edward succeeded to the throne at the age of sixty. His eldest son Albert had died a decade earlier, so his son George became the heir apparent upon his father’s accession. Legacy as King Edward chose his middle name as his regnal name, despite still being informally known as â€Å"Bertie,† in deference to his late father Prince Albert. As king, he remained a great patron of the arts and worked to restore some of the traditional ceremonies that had lapsed during his mother’s reign. He held a great interest in international affairs and diplomacy, not least of which because most of the royal houses of Europe were intertwined with his family through blood or marriage. Domestically, he opposed Irish home rule and women’s suffrage, although his public comments on race were progressive compared to his contemporaries. He was, however, stuck in a constitutional crisis in 1909, when the House of Lords refused to pass the Liberal-led budget from the House of Commons. The deadlock eventually led to legislation – which the king supported obliquely – to remove the power of the Lords to veto and reduce parliamentary terms. Edward, a lifelong smoker, suffered from severe bronchitis, and in May 1910, his health worsened further with a series of heart attacks. He died on May 6, and his state funeral, two weeks later, was possibly the largest assembly of royalty ever seen. Although his reign was a short one, it was one marked by an affable knack for collaboration in governing and diplomacy, if not a deep understanding, and his training showed clearly in the reign of his son and successor, George V. Sources BBC. â€Å"Edward VII.†Ã¢â‚¬Å"Edward VII Biography.† Biography, Sep 10, 2015.Wilson, A N.  Victoria: A Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2015.